### A brief introduction to problems of perspective...

Dealing with perspective is necessary, as it solves common problems. In this introduction am giving you an insight into the problems and how to deal with them. Obviously, this is very limiting under present circumstances, but when class resumes, we will spend one complete Saturday dealing with it, and you will learn to master it quickly - you just need instruction. So take a look at the following examples, but don't tear your hair out if you cannot master it. I need to be with you to answer questions and guide you through the process.

### Putting it into practice!

### Putting it into practice!

8. If you can draw this successfully, then you will really have a good grasp of how perspective works!

- First thing you need to know. Where is the horizon line? If on a beach, then it's obvious. It's where the sky meets the sea, and will always be at your eye level. If standing on the beach, water lapping at your feet, the horizon is just under 3 miles away - I know, hard to believe, but it's true. If you are 100 feet higher up, on a cliff, then it it will be around 12 miles away.

*Important. Parallel lines, or angles, below the horizon line, converge upwards and meet at the vanishing point on the horizon.*

2. With parallel line above the horizon line, converge down. This is the basic rule.

*Important. Parallel lines, or angles, above the horizon line, converge downwards and meet at the vanishing point on the horizon.*

3.Here you see the where converging lines, angles, parallel lines, converge at the horizon line, which is at your eye-level. If you were sitting down, then the horizon line would still be at your eye-level. Same with a child, at the child's eye-level, and so on. If in the countryside and, where you cannot see the sea and sky meeting, all you need to do is take a pencil, brush, or your finger, hold in front of you at eye-level, that's the horizon line. That's how you find it, in a city, mountains, landscape. Always at your eye-level.

*Important. Parallel lines, or angles, above the horizon line, converge upwards and meet at the vanishing point on the horizon. As in this example.*

4. Looking in the opposite direction at Hillside station. Note, angles above the horizon line converge down. But, as you can start to notice, depending on the angle, the line will not always meet at the same vanishing point (VP)! Look at the guttering on the building. They are at different angles, so will meet at a different VP, but sill on the horizon. This then becomes two point perspective and then multiple perspective. This is when it can become complex, but understanding the basic rules explained here will help you solve the problem. Plus, when we cover this in class, I will explain other ways of dealing with the problem of perspective, so, don't get stressed out if you don't understand these examples.

*Remember. Parallel lines, or angles, above the horizon line, converge upwards and meet at the vanishing point on the horizon. As in this example.*

5. Southport pier. As you can see in this excellent example. All parallel lines are converging and meeting at a single VP. Obviously if lines are at different angles, they would converge at a different vanishing point (VP), but still meet on the horizon line. The lights, are converging down, as they are above the horizon line.

*Remember. Parallel lines, or angles, below the horizon line, converge upwards and meet at the vanishing point on the horizon. As in this example - except the lights, they are converging down.*

6. Opposite view, looking towards the town. All parallel lines are converging and meeting at a single VP. (though, there is a building on the left, different angle, so parallel lines will meet at a different VP on the horizon line).

7. An exercise you can do to gain knowledge. Best approach. Once you put in the horizon line, add the VP on the centre, then all parallel lines will meet here - this is one point perspective, but is very useful to teach the basics of perspective.

**8. So, final exercise. Put into practice the explanations from above. **

**Note, this example is 2 point perspective!**

**But, please don't battle with it. If proving too difficult, then wait till you return to class.**